Universe Sandbox Wiki
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One of the effects that Universe Sandbox uses to calculate the temperature of an object is supernova drag heating, which is produced by the friction between the object and any supernova clouds passing by the object.

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At every time step of a simulation where a supernova has occurred, Universe Sandbox checks whether any of the supernova clouds have reached the object. If so, the amount of energy produced by friction is calculated based on the object's size, the supernova cloud's density, and the relative velocity between the object and the cloud. The rate at which energy is added to the object via friction with passing clouds is represented by the Gas Drag Power property. The Gas Drag Power is included in the Energy Absorption Rate, which is used to calculate the change in temperature for the object.

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