One of the effects that Universe Sandbox uses to calculate the temperature of an object is supernova drag heating, which is produced by the friction between the object and any supernova clouds passing by the object.
- The rate at which energy is added to the object from passing supernova clouds is shown in the Gas Drag Power property.
- The amount of heating depends on the Maximum Cloud Radius and Cloud Mass properties of the expanding supernova.
- The amount of heating also depends on the object's Radius.
- Supernova drag heating will affect an object's Average Temperature or Surface Temperature.
At every time step of a simulation where a supernova has occurred, Universe Sandbox checks whether any of the supernova clouds have reached the object. If so, the amount of energy produced by friction is calculated based on the object's size, the supernova cloud's density, and the relative velocity between the object and the cloud. The rate at which energy is added to the object via friction with passing clouds is represented by the Gas Drag Power property. The Gas Drag Power is included in the Energy Absorption Rate, which is used to calculate the change in temperature for the object.